Summaries from Number 41
International Christian University Publication IV-B
Humanities: Christianity and Culture
自己を知る――超越者との対話. . . . . . 岡野 昌雄
[Knowing Yourself: Dialogue with the Transcendent. . . . . . Masao Okano]
アウグスティヌスの膨大な著作は、失われた若い頃の『美と適合について』De pulchro et aptoを除くと、すべて回心後に書かれたものです。彼の著作活動は、9年に及ぶマニ教との関わりを捨てて、幼いころから母モニカによって培われたキリスト教信仰に復帰し、それを受け入れる決断をした、いわゆるミラノの回心直後に、ミラノ郊外のカッシキアクムに籠って自らの生き方を見つめ直そうとした、自己省察の記録であるカッシキアクム対話編から始まりました。そのような自己省察の成果は、やがてヒッポ・レギウスの司教に就して数年後の400年ごろに書かれた『告白』で大きな実を結ぶことになります。カッシキアクム対話編と『告白』を結んで、彼の自己省察の思索のあとを辿ってみたいと思います。
ヒュームのシンパシー論―人間的自然の原理としての―. . . . . . 矢嶋 直規
[Hume’s Theory of Sympathy as a Principle of Human Nature. . . . . . Naoki Yajima]
This paper attempts to elucidate the significance of Hume’s theory of passion, in particular his accounts of indirect passion and of sympathy. First, I set out the theoretical role the theory of passion plays in the whole scheme of Hume’s Treatise. I claim that the theory of indirect passion explains how some physical objects become brought within the sphere of social valuation. Physical objects and human actions are incorporated into social relationships by causing the sentiments of pride or humility, thus producing the social perception of the self. The social perception of objects leads to the notion of possession, and develops into justice as the system of property. Hume’s theory of indirect passion culminates in the theory of sympathy. I indicate that there is a parallelism between Hume’s theory of “abstract ideas” and that of sympathy as the general recognition of the particular. Sympathy enables people to act on behalf of others, and thus serves as the fundamental principle of social cooperation. In this way, Hume’s theory of passion is a significant departure from social contract theory, explaining the natural formation of sociability in a way that is logically prior to the formation of political authority.
‘Idle and Extravagant Stories in Verse': 400 Years of Narrative Poetry from Sir Gawain to Wordsworth. . . . . Christopher E. J. Simons
In the Preface to the second edition of the Lyrical Ballads (1800), his first sustained piece of literary criticism, William Wordsworth establishes both stylistic and social objectives for English poetry. Wordsworth rails against the poor literary taste of his times, including ‘frantic novels, sickly and stupid German Tragedies, and deluges of idle and extravagant stories in verse.’ This paper considers the specific meaning of Wordsworth’s attack on ‘idle and extravagant stories in verse,’ in the context of the history of narrative poetry in English literature, and Wordsworth’s own narrative ballads. The paper begins by considering how to evaluate Wordsworth’s criticisms of idleness and extravagance on a poetic level, and subsequently develops four criteria by which a narrative poem can be judged as idle or extravagant: if it lacks ‘worth’ to the reader and society beyond mere diversion and entertainment; if its characters and action encourage idleness in the reader by imitation; if the poem lacks narrative and psychological realism; and if it contains excesses of language, description, and digression. The paper then applies this critical model to four narratives from four periods of English poetry: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer’s The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale; Pope’s The Rape of the Lock; and finally, Wordsworth’s Peter Bell. The paper demonstrates that each of these poems fails Wordsworth’s critical test and is ‘idle and extravagant’ to some degree, usually through the explicit design of the poet. The paper concludes that while carefully constructing his own poetical and social aims for narrative poetry in the Preface, Wordsworth fails to concede that many of the greatest narrative poems in English literature meet his conditions for ‘idle and extravagant stories in verse.’ Yet Wordsworth’s own narrative poems achieve a balance between the festive morality of Gawain, and Chaucer’s salacious language in The Canterbury Tales, by using stylistic extravagance to create a portrait of everyday human life which heightens the psychological realism, and hence the moral impact, of his ballad narratives.
The Spiritual Life in the Twenty-first Century: Solidarity with the Victims of Violence. . . . . . Jeremiah L. Alberg
[with Japanese translation by Yumiko Motoda]
In order to give a religious answer to the question, ‘What is religious life?’ in the twenty-first century I propose to give a meditation on the famous story of the Good Samaritan. Clearly this story concerns itself solidarity with a victim, and so it presents itself as very germane to the position I wish to explore. At the same time it has some surprising twists that can help us to understand the implications of trying to live a religious life based upon the relationship with a victim.
Places, Times, and People in Worship in Calvin’s Geneva. . . . . . Elsie A. McKee (Archibald Alexander Professor, Princeton Theological Seminary)
Amid the many theological developments of the Protestant Reformation the practical implementations of changes in worship sometimes are forgotten. This essay examines where and when Genevans worshiped, clarifying recent arguments about times and frequency of services as well as how places, their state of repair, and the arrival of many refugees contributed to the material organization of worship. It is shown that the 1541 Ecclesiastical Ordinances are a generally reliable guide to days and numbers of services, but these should be supplemented by data about personnel and hours of worship drawn from baptismal and marriage registers and civil records.